Published 18 February 2020
This paper intends to draw attention to fuels alternative to pipeline natural gas, which can be relevant for the (clean) energy transition. These are biogas, biomethane, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas and synthetic natural gas. These gases are not expressly mentioned in the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), which renders their status under the ECT unclear. The paper briefly introduces each of the above gases and the technologies used to produce them. It then outlines the possible added value of each of the gases to the energy transition. Finally, proposals are made regarding possible ways of including these gases and related technologies in a modernised ECT. In this regard, the paper presents exemplary treaty provisions which could be adjusted and integrated in a modernised ECT.