Ingerid M. Opdahl is a Fellow of the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies and a PhD student at the Centre for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom). The topic of her PhD project is energy and Russian foreign policy in the former Soviet Union after 2000. The project is centred on Russian energy companies, including oil, gas, nuclear and electricity companies, and their relations with the Russian government in operations in the former Soviet Union. She holds a cand. polit. degree (Political Science) from the University of Oslo and an MSc in Russian and post Soviet studies from the London School of Economics and Political Science. Mrs. Opdahl is a fluent Russian speaker.